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What Is Hair Made Of? Exploring the Composition of Our Hair

For all of us, our hair is sacred ground, the most defining feature of our appearance, with countless styles, colors, and textures that help express our individuality. But have you ever wondered what hair is made of? Beneath its glossy exterior lies a complex composition comprising several intriguing elements. In this article, we'll delve into the microscopic world of hair to explore its structure, composition, and the fascinating science behind what is human hair made of.

Understanding the Complex Process of how hair is formed

What Exactly Is Hair Made Of?

While it is a fact that the majority of the hair shaft is not living, the intricate processes our bodies undergo to produce hair, are highly complex.

To truly understand what's best for your hair health, gaining insight into what are hair made of and comprehending the mechanisms by which your body generates it can be incredibly beneficial.

While we are mainly concerned with the final outcome of the process- the luxurious mane of hair atop your head – the creation of hair and the intricate process that unfolds behind the scenes play a vital role in your hair health status.

Unveiling the Anatomy of Hair

While it is not easy to define hair, Each hair, or "hair shaft," forms within a hair follicle nestled within the dermis, a skin layer. Think of the hair follicle as a kind of womb where the captivating process of hair creation unfolds. The hair root, situated at the base of the hair follicle, serves as the anchor for the hair shaft within the skin. Tiny muscles known as the arrector pili contract when exposed to cold, generating the phenomenon we know as goosebumps.

How is hair formed?

Before emerging from your skin's surface, your hair originates as a cluster of living cells formed by a bulb at the hair follicle's base. This bulb houses a network of nerves and blood vessels, collectively called the dermal papilla, responsible for nourishing and delivering hormones to the developing hair cells. Sebaceous glands, attached to each hair follicle, produce oils that protect the emerging hair shaft.

Therefore, using natural products that nourish the hair follicles is pivotal because the living cells that eventually contribute to the hair shaft are generated within the follicle.

Is hair made of dead cells?

As the living cells within the bulb gradually die, they are propelled upward and out of the follicle, forming a visible strand of hair. Yes, it's intriguing to note that what we perceive as hair is, in reality, a conglomeration of dead cells. However, the process continues.

Subsequently, the bulb creates fresh cells that merge with those already pushed out of the follicle. This continuous cycle results in the elongation of the hair strand. This is how the hair growth takes place.

What is hair composed of? Is hair made of keratin?

To understand what is hair, you have to see beyond its physical structure. What hair is made of is a robust protein called keratin, which also serves as a fundamental component of nails and skin.

Given that keratin is a protein, an adequate protein intake through our diets is crucial for fostering hair development. Within our bodies, proteins undergo breakdown into amino acids, which subsequently serve as the foundational building blocks for hair. These amino acids form the building blocks that create the various types of keratin proteins found in hair.

Amino Acids: Amino acids are essential for the formation of keratin. They are linked together in specific sequences to create long chains. The series of amino acids in a keratin protein chain determines the characteristics of the hair, such as its strength, texture, and curl pattern.

Melanin: Melanin is the pigment responsible for the color of our hair. There are two main types of melanin: eumelanin, which produces brown to black hair colors, and pheomelanin, which has red and blonde hair colors. The amount and combination of these pigments in the hair shaft's cortex determine its color.

Lipids: Lipids, commonly referred to as fats, are another essential component of hair. These lipids help maintain flexibility, moisture, and overall hair health. The natural oils produced by the scalp contribute to the lipid content of the hair, giving it its shine and texture.

Water: While water content in hair may vary, it is an essential element affecting hair's elasticity and overall appearance. Hair with an optimal water balance is more flexible and less prone to breakage.

Minerals: Hair also contains trace amounts of minerals, such as calcium, iron, and zinc. These minerals can affect the hair's strength and overall health.

The Structure of Hair

To understand what is hair made of, let's start by exploring its structure. Hair can be divided into three main layers: the cuticle, the cortex, and the medulla.

Cuticle: The outermost layer of the hair shaft is called the cuticle. It consists of a series of overlapping cells, similar to shingles on a roof. These cells protect the inner layers and play a crucial role in determining the hair's texture and appearance.

Cortex: Beneath the cuticle lies the cortex, which makes up most of the hair's mass. This layer contains long protein chains called keratin, giving hair strength, elasticity, and color. The arrangement and density of these keratin fibers contribute to the hair's texture, from straight to wavy to curly.

Medulla: Not all hair types have a medulla, but if present, it's the innermost layer of the hair shaft. The medulla is composed of loosely packed cells and air spaces. While its exact function is still debated, it may contribute to the hair's overall flexibility.

Factors Affecting Hair Composition

Several factors can influence the composition of hair and its overall health:

Genetics: Genetic factors play a significant role in determining hair type, texture, color, and susceptibility to certain conditions like hair loss.

Diet and Nutrition: A balanced diet rich in proteins, vitamins, and minerals is essential for healthy hair growth and maintenance. Nutrients like biotin, vitamin E, and omega-3 fatty acids contribute to hair health.

Hair Care Practices: The way you care for your hair, including washing frequency, use of styling products, and heat treatments, can impact its composition and health. Overuse of harsh chemicals or excessive heat can lead to damage.

Environmental Factors: Exposure to sunlight, pollution, and extreme weather conditions can affect the hair's outer cuticle layer, leading to dryness, frizz, and color fading.

Hair Stats

How much hair does a human have?

The average human head has about 100,000 to 150,000 hair strands. How many hairs on the human head also depends on factors such as genetics, medical health, hormones, stress,diet etc.

How many hair follicles on the human head?

The human scalp contains approximately 100,000 hair follicles.


While we often admire the beauty of hair from a distance, its intricate composition reveals a captivating scientific story. Each layer plays a role in creating the hair we know and love, from the protein-rich cortex to the protective cuticle and the mysterious medulla. As we unravel the mysteries of hair, one thing remains clear: our crowning glory is a true masterpiece of nature's craftsmanship.


1. What exactly is hair made of?

Hair is primarily composed of a protein called keratin, which is made up of amino acids. It also contains melanin pigment, water, lipids, and trace minerals.

2. What minerals are in hair?

Hair contains trace minerals like calcium, iron, zinc, and copper, which contribute to its strength and overall health.

3. Why does hair keep growing?

Hair growth occurs in cycles. During the active phase (anagen), cells in the hair follicles divide rapidly, pushing out old cells and forming new hair strands.

4. Why does hair turn grey?

Hair turns grey due to a gradual reduction in melanin production as we age. This leads to a loss of color pigments in the hair shaft.

5. Do hair roots grow back?

Yes, hair roots can grow back if they are not permanently damaged. In cases of temporary hair loss, such as from certain medical conditions, hair can regrow.

6. What type of vitamins are in hair?

Hair requires vitamins like biotin, vitamin E, vitamin C, and B vitamins (such as Biotin, Niacin, and B12) for healthy growth and maintenance.

7. What makes hair grow?

Hair growth is influenced by factors like genetics, diet, hormones, and overall health. Adequate nutrition and a healthy scalp environment are essential for optimal growth.

8. How does curly hair form?

Curly hair is the result of the shape of the hair follicle. Oval or asymmetrical follicles tend to produce curly hair, while round follicles lead to straight hair.

9. What gives hair its natural color?

The natural color of hair comes from melanin, a pigment produced by specialized cells in the hair follicles. Eumelanin (brown/black) and pheomelanin (red/blonde) determine hair color.

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About The Author: Paula Bland

Paula Bland - Natural Hair consultant

The founder of TLP, Paula Bland, is a medically qualified Nurse Practitioner, Hair aesthetician, and psychiatric Nurse Practitioner known for her highly effective hair consultation. Paula has a non-traditional approach to hair care and advocates a chemical-free, natural, and holistic approach. The Love of People is her brainchild, and its products reflect her approach to hair health and have helped women with naturally curly hair manage their curls in a chemical-free and organic way.


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